Magid (or Maggid) is a term describing the Jewish reception acts of God, an angel or soul of a saint who died, revealed by righteous living mystical experience, a dream or a daydream, usually result from using magical means. Magid Torah reveals a person, usually in the Kabbalah, and tells him about future events. Individual sources is described as a Maggid of external dictates righteous, and generally speaking from the mouth of the Maggid justified. The culmination of the Maggid was the phenomenon of the 16th century and 18th.

Maggid is described as usually appears after a certain magical and special activities for the discovery, yet rarely mentioned as a Maggid appeared or requested to appear without magical activity front. In these cases there is no magic phenomenon which belongs to the person to ask personal revelations, but the field of mysticism. In mystical, asking a person to act for the common good, and seeks personal revelations. Megiddo example mystical occurs in the Maggid of Vilna Gaon.

History of the MaggidEdit

Megiddo previous periodsEdit

Foundation of Jewish belief is that God revealed to mankind. According to the Torah the Jewish sages say, these revelations various degrees [1]. Among the ranks - a prophecy, a voice of the Holy Spirit. According to the Talmud, as the years passed there was a drop in quality relationship between God and humans, as saying: "Mshmtho Haggai Zechariah Malachi get out of the Holy Spirit from Israel, and yet were used at the sound "(Sotah marrow, b..) Another type of relationship is told by God to angels in rabbinic literature is secrets explorers, led by Elijah. Angel is the entity - the existing natural by various religions belief, usually depicted as a heavenly spiritual angel sent to carry out a divine mission or transmitting the Word of God to human beings (similar to a human prophet). According described in rabbinic literature, the Angels have found people of different laws [2], and the secrets of the Torah.

Acceptance literature, from its inception, carrying Taosofi character, that it is not satisfied with the mystical experience exclusive destination, but as a means to secrets of Kabbalah, the first stage of the process as a result of ongoing sophistry interpretation of these manifestations. The first manifestations are attributed to the discovery of Elijah reception, which is the most common phenomenon of discovery Magid, similar cheder Muslim legend.

From ancient times, with the development of Gnostic Kabbalah, appeared together with measures designed to achieve the speech by the Lord. One of the measures described in the words of our sages, especially in literature temple chariot, was "mental journey" a person purify up to the sky to predict the chair of honor. Evidence of such campaigns on the writers more time conditions, as the story about the "Four entered the orchard" (Hand Celebration Mask , on.).

Late acceptance literature, starting from the 16th century, abandoned the use of various traditions through the means described, and remains largely Magid Disclosure technique. That almost completely abandoned the ancient technique of mental journey to predict an increase in the prevailing literature and chair of the Hall of Honor carriage (except for exceptional cases like the Baal Shem Tov and Rabbi Chaim Ibn Atar), and instead got the "wave" down into the soul. Also use voices stopped and the phenomenon of the Maggid is closest to detect old Elijah was profit. Also, there is also a certain similarity between it and the prophecy.

The first period Megiddo - the respondent schoolsEdit

Using what later defined as "tendon", is already known from earlier periods, before the appearance of the reception of the Spanish, for example the book by Rabbi Jacob Mmreus of those extras, "Questions and Answers from Heaven" (turn of the 12th century and 13th). Some Kabbalistic writings, for example interpreting the legends of Rabbi Ezra book Shaare Zedek a disciple of Rabbi Abraham Abulafia, there is an interpretation that interprets the prophecy of the prophets in the same phenomenon Mgydim. Rabbi Yehuda Even the Queen writes about sound out the burning bush, it was the sound coming from the throat of Moses. However, these sources themselves do not use the term "preacher" or a similar description to that described in the context of the Maggid, and use of the term "narrator" itself as close to the expulsion of Spain, the Mystics of Spain. During this period of pre-expulsion, written detailed instructions that included the various magical means to use to get discovery of the narrator. Maggid phenomenon reached its peak during the Saturn, and since there was a more minor degree, until the 18th century.

The first connection of different manifestations reminiscent discovered by Magid, is "Tell the respondent." This book apparently Log in Spain before the expulsion, but clearly do not know who the author.

Respondent described in various manifestations, is unique in that the author suggests that it has a heroic discoveries by itself, ie from God himself, so to speak. Unique is dimmed in common that brought things in the name of this book, revelations that the owner called different names, which it seems that this is not a revelation from God himself [3]. The various manuscripts of the connection at this point are contradictory. There are manuscripts (British, for example) which implies that the speaker is indeed divinity itself. These manuscripts include phrases such as "Dear my death" and "messianic D. Alhuti Forget." In contrast, other manuscripts have disappeared these expressions is identified as an angel Azriel Maggid. These manuscripts also include prayers, including angel Azriel discovery requests specifically. In addition, little material of the respondent schools are found angels Michael Metatron, also partly responsible for the evil forces of impurity: Samael trust hateful, known act of Joseph della Reina.

This question of identity is revealed, has implications for the various ways in which discoveries are based on the respondent schools. Book describes the discovery of two ways: waking dream. From one section in the respondent seems that when the revelations are from the heroic, the Shlahsidim ancients (and so will the future as well) was God revealed to them a spiritual body dressed realized the material, the body of Elijah with the ancients were talking. Compared with the ancients, this time the revelations are just a dream without a word and sound. However, in another section of the book it seems that this time there could be a possibility of discovery of a man waking. Other manifestations of God, the revelations of the other angels are often in a dream, by the question of the dream.

Respondent in question is the technique of dream branch of Megiddo. Using the question was the most common dream at the time, and detailed instructions how to make the dream question many texts were preserved. As mentioned above, the Department of add-ons used to decide the questions Dream various halachic questions, this phenomenon reached its peak in "Questions and Answers from Heaven" by Rabbi Yaakov Mmreus. Compared to conventional uses, in Spanish Mystics Dream questions are used primarily to determine various questions in the Kabbalah, as we shall see various letters of Rabbi Abraham ben Eliezer Halevi [4]. Using a dream is also the question of the writings of Rabbi Yehuda Ben Moshe Albeotini expelled from Portugal in his book "scale immigration, as well as other accepted books expulsion from another generation.

Other words researchers concluded that writing the words of the tendons is done through "automatic writing", the respondent in writing of the phenomenon is not automatic, but someone was sitting in third with a common voice that says what God or the angel said to him, and he would write the things he had heard from hearing the answer without understanding the events.

Maggid told respondent phenomenon which had an impact on next generation standard, directly or indirectly. Respondent school was also known Rabbi Ovadia lot Ramak, quoting from it. Another an anonymous book called "Cape incense", then accept the Book of Psalms, is a kind of adaptation of the book and the respondent in the form of required disclosures, was familiar with Rabbi Isaac Moss " Association of Azov "brings him, and Rabbi Chaim Vital, the respondent's book also influenced them indirectly.

Conclusion is that in the first period Maggid Megiddo was interpreted as a manifestation of angels in a dream by dream question, or as a manifestation of divinity itself, waking or dream Bahatlbesutah human body, usually that of Elijah.

Second period Megiddo - divorceEdit

The expulsion of Spain in the second generation, there is evidence of a different kind of cheats, especially the circle Ramak (1522-1570). Ramak students were taking the technique of "divorce": isolation fields outside the settlement places to go on my way to the Divine Presence also traveling from her home in exile. During these divorces are thinking were automatically attributed to the Divine Presence and affects them mentally revealed secrets and words of Torah. In this type of infidelity, the Divine Presence thinking person's mind automatically used after several generations of various Hasidic factions, since the early growth of Hasidism [5], and continued even then different from the Rose Abahasidweut Gene (storks Asdyagora, Boyan Hasidism and [6] .)

The third period Megiddo - Lurianic KabbalahEdit

In the 16th century became the righteous souls contact practice main part in achieving secrets Lurianic Kabbalah, this connection was created righteous souls by spreading out on the graves while reciting verses or phrases suitable for different letters of unique elements. Different books were written to guide the user Achshmtertam coming achieve mystical experiences and displays of secrets, like "unique gate", and "Holy awake."

Lurianic Kabbalah literature was given a new interpretation of the concept of the Maggid. According to Rabbi Chaim Vital, student Ari, when one purifies the Temple itself and deals with religious practice properly, then it creates a new angels and good deeds, and are called tendons. Angels are able to prove a person discover his secrets, but not always their real revelations. Criterion to identify the truth of things is this - if the mitzvah was done perfectly, without any side of evil, all associated Maggid angel good side, and lying to the world, but if the commandment is a combination of bad thoughts, the angel Maggid involved a good companion and can also tell lies as if they were real .

Rabbi Chaim Vital also classified into four mystical revelations. Conditions required for all disclosures, are abstinence pleasures, repair corrupt moral virtues, chastity in social life, immersion in the mikvah, editing patch midnight solitude while looking meditative.

Ways of revelations by Lurianic Kabbalah are:

  1. Holy Spirit, which he says is the continuation of light from the root top of mind;
  2. Magid, and an angel created by act of mitzvah was done perfectly, with all the details and intentions commandment law;
  3. Discovering Elijah, would be found to man the prophet Elijah, as Ahasidotho of the person the greater disclosure to it;
  4. Discovery of ancient fires righteous person who died, to notify him hidden secrets smart turn up beautifully, and all that as his actions.
  5. Dream, he saw his dreams will and wisdom matters close to the Holy Spirit.. [7]

Specifications Vital elsewhere extensively the danger that the angels are created by man's evil deeds, or even by the team that are absolutely perfect, and they also may appear Chmagydim involve the statements lies, as much as evil intervened in the work. Vital same place that the prophecy says the Holy Spirit can not enter the ears of the Prophet realized that, but by dressing in a voice of the prophet Deborah engaged at this time in the Torah or prayer [8].

Lurianic system Megiddo conclusion is, Smgydim are angels created commandments Torah study, and have different degrees, including those that may lie. In addition, Prophecy and the Holy Spirit revealed consumed by the Prophet's speech, like Lmgydim.

Approach of Rabbi Chaim Vital identifies the Maggid with an angel created man's bidding, was the most common in later generations, as Rabbi Yaakov Emden picking his business on this issue, when it adopts the approach of Rabbi Chaim displays it agreed [9].

Different tendonsEdit

In addition Lmgydim first editions, described above, there is evidence on the various tendons throughout the generations. Among the most famous preacher was revealed to them, are Rabbi Yosef Karo, who wrote under his Maggid of the book "Magid Straight Path", Ramchal, who wrote several essays by Magid, Rabbi Shimshon Maustropoli. Even the Baal Shem Tov told who the person of her brother Maggid Shilonite . which Rabbi Yosef Taetacac, a contemporary of Rabbi Yosef Karo, opinions are divided whether he had Magid.

The number of student Vilna Gaon Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin who wanted to provide him with expressions of Torah from the sky by the tendons, and how often accept his doorstep tendons please teach him secrets of the Torah, but he refused to accept them and asked to work on the theory itself [10].

The second half of the 19th century no reports of people who claimed manifestations Magid.

The Maggid of Rabbi Joseph CaroEdit

Title page of the first edition of "Magid Meisharim, Lublin - Venice the Z - Thursday At"te

The most famous Maggid Maggid of Rabbi Joseph Caro wrote the book upside "Magid Straight Path." This book is a log of revelations Magid, including dates of the revelations, The practice of business Caro before Revelation - Study periods often minor, and content revelations himself. Address Maggid of Rabbi Joseph Caro were in Aramaic.

Rabbi Shlomo Elkabetz claimed Maggid present revelation on Shavuot night, and said:

   "Ziachnu Burano and hear the sound of the desert by Pious Ner"v (= Rabbi Yosef Karo), great voice cut letters, and all the neighbors would hear and understand. Voice and great tunes going strong, and we fell on our faces and there was no man to marry his spirit to face with horrors. "

Due to the mystical nature of the book declares straight, seemingly opposite nature of Rabbi Yosef Caro House author Joseph "The Shulchan Arukh, rose appellants on the breeding of the book, claiming that Caro attached. Top of the appellants was Shi"ar, but deer Ourblosky studying the phenomenon at length in his book The Maggid of Rabbi Joseph Caro ", showed no evidence that a forgery. In addition, an oral conversation with Moshe Idel, offered Werblowsky possibility that Rabbi Yosef Karo may have also taken actions various magical to win the Maggid, as did others of his generation accepted and even that book Magid Meisharim references to this, it may be because the later editing the book, and in fact used magical means. You may omit the words to the "fit" the house of Joseph, or due to revealing nature of the final edited book that gave a place to describe the practices that led to the discovery of secrets [11]. the words of Meir Benayahu Werblowsky added new perspectives based on copies of the book's manuscripts Maggid Rabbi Yaakov Tzemach and R. Ezra Mfanu.

Maggid of Caro promised various promises, describing him several times the wages he Rabbi north the next world. Among others assured him win a martyr's death, something that actually took place:

   "Vazachach cost pounds this year and then burn the sanctity Azachach name. Vazachach widely consumed in Israel consecrate my name publicly on the altar sacrifice channel ... Vazachach finish Hiborach enlighten the eyes of all Israel at all wise and educated people will draw Mhiborach called the house of Joseph. "

The idea of a martyr's death was affected by very Caro figure of Solomon Molcho it met even before he arrives to Israel, and his name is mentioned in the words of the Maggid of him.

Maggid in Caro phenomenon is unusual, because the center of his revelation is not an angel or his soul, but the Divine Presence, identified according to the reception with the sub. In addition, the book Magid Mishnah Meisharim impression Caro turned into its own initiative, and Caro did not take any magical operations to his age, unlike the remaining Mgydim before Caro, who worked in various operations for Ahatgalutm. The fact that the Maggid intervened and told him to religious issues in different cases is beautiful wrote in his halakhic "Beit Yosef", is a deviation relative to the rest Mgydim, only dealt with mystical revelations were not law. The other exception Maggid, Maggid of Caro similar, it describes is Maggid Rabbi Chaim of Volozhin as he wanted to find words of Torah Gaon rejected by him, as described above.

Sabbatean motion tendonsEdit

Sabbatean movement has become the most common phenomenon whereby Maggid discovered many secrets. In the tide of traffic Saturn, especially in the Atach"v (1666), there were outbreaks mass prophecy, even the women and the mass people, which included expressions of broadcast messages tendons waking dream, the messianism of Sabbatai Zevi. People who had the status of these discoveries Special audience Sabbateans. Later some of them were even considered the history of Shabtai Zvi, such as Abraham Cardoso [12]. Abraham Yakhini also gave other cells were dared tendons [13].

The later period, after conversion of Sabbatai Zevi, still scattered among Sabbateans tendons. Thus in the Italian study of Saturn's Abraham Roweago long been a presence in about 15 years (1675–1691; the PPC - the Tan"a) of tendons revealed some students burned Issachar Frlopter Shmuel Meir and Lroweago own doctor. Doctor's notes is that most of his speech concerned the Maggid was asking for the meaning of the death of Sabbatai Zevi in predicting return to life after a year.

Magid important that we find precisely Department Mordechai Ashkenazi, who was not a scholar or connoisseur especially at reception. Nevertheless, these discoveries have left a strong impression on Roweago Rabbo. Maggid revelations Ashkenazi, initially by voice (speaking Aramaic, the Maggid of Caro) and then also have character, have been studied by Gershom Scholem concluded that the figure dressed in his dreams of Ashkenazi was none other than the Roweago itself.

These discoveries all content matters but also threaten personal general advice about study matters of sand, which included no criticism of the Maggid revealed Lfrlopter out of him astray. Magid is also made the Ashkenazi Oroweago to immigrate to Israel, as indeed they did.

Maggid of RamchalEdit

Another preacher who won much publicity, is the Maggid of Ramchal, discovered him in his younger, starting from Rosh Chodesh Sivan, the Atp"aza, at age 23. Magid is also eye of the storm was polemic against Ramchal.

Ramchal writes the first discovery: On Rosh Chodesh Sivan, the Atp"aza, as a union devotes one (= Practice Maggi - accept), I fell asleep. Wake up I heard a voice say: Lgalah Ngeita Razin Tmairine Dmallacha Kaddish (= Aramaic: I got off to reveal thin Tmairim of King St.). And immediately I shaking, and strengthened. and the voice did not stop, said a secret what he said. On second at that time I tried to be alone in the room, returned another secret voice said. until one day later I discovered he declares an agent from heaven, and gave me a unique individual to direct all day , then come. I do not see it but hear his voice speaking out of my mouth. and then gave me permission to ask as well. Chmashlush months and then gave me a private corrections do every day, so that I may discover Elijah remember best. Then he ordered me to write a book of Ecclesiastes , which was interpreted to me the secret of verses each. and then came to her and said what he said secrets, and he said now come Mte"te Sra much (the angel Metatron). I knew he was coming in, because the words of Elijah told me. From then on Crete each on its own. - Ramchal and contemporaries page Lett, poems Moses P. vomit

Ramhal remarks indicate there are additional Maggid phenomenon: the disclosure would involve occupational Maggie; discovered him in the order: Magid, Elijah, the angel Metatron; any revelation preceded by a special magical activity; Magid does not appear; words Maggid came from the mouth of Ramchal; familiarity with the various revealed through testimony Magid became one of the other.

In addition Maggid automatic speech Ramchal discovered, testified on behalf of messenger Safed Rabbi Raphael Israel Kimhi on the phenomenon of automatic writing cheats it was up to, when following a different unique for half an hour, was writing rapidly Kabbalistic secrets, and for less than half an hour writing folio page or half a page.

Maggid inspired Ramhal wrote many essays, the most prominent of which is "glamorous Taneina", designed as a replacement Book of Zohar, when the first glow according Ramhal intended for his glow exile for redemption.

Ramchal shared his secret to his friends gathered around him. One of his students, perhaps most notably, Yekutiel Gordon, publicly revealed the existence of the Maggid, which initially aroused tremendous enthusiasm Ramchal admirably. But after a little time Ramchal's claim was the discovery of the Maggid, eye storm of opposition to it, when it aroused great opposition to him the part of many rabbis, led by Rabbi Moshe Ahgiiz Vhiab"c, who referred to the phenomenon of Maggid general distinguished between him claimed spear Maggid "to. Among other things they claimed narrator can not be discovered abroad, and not so young. They also raised suspicion that the revelations come from the devil of impurity, like the Mgydim working in the movement to Saturn.

As a result of these persecutions Ramchal was sworn not to engage in more writing essays according to Magid. At one point, when not allowed to engage reception Ramchal, Maggid told him to immigrate to Israel where he could engage in at reception (fees Ramchal, Ara"gi), and indeed , at the end of his life was Ramchal to Israel.

Most connections Ramchal Maggid were shelved by order of his pursuers, and survived. Remnant of an article from the glow Taneina affair after, reprinted in "Ganzi Ramchal, Bnei Brak the Atshm"ed.

Psychoanalysis of the MaggidEdit

Researchers, the phenomenon of Maggid intended as a strong need for common Kenan and discovering new secrets will not ever appeared. This increased the period after the expulsion from Spain, when dealing with another Kabbalah messianic aspect, and consequently sought to reach new discoveries accepted the coming of the messiah came near, or those Mhuym part of the Torah that the Messiah would reveal. However, since it essentially argues reception ancient traditions in essence, not left Kabbalists place to renew their minds anything. Solution to this distress is the shape of the Mgydim, they are souls of the righteous from previous generations or angels, that they can discover innovations not resumed yet, and yet not detract from the credibility of the secrets of the ancient tradition of Kabbalah [14]. However, many times it seems that standard is not aiming to the discovery of a narrator, but adherence to it only, while the manifestations of the Maggid is given as a gift, no real action will do to get it.

Maggid discovery possible in two main forms waking dream. In the Middle Ages was attributed to dream of great significance, partly prophetic, and revelations were revealed in a dream long valid.

Discovery is usually associated reverie induced intuition and thinking automatically, when the person made the disclosures assume the conscious mind tries to grasp in thought the "abortion" consciousness without Morebtho operations without interruption.

An example of this discovery, there is the Book of Divorce "by Ramak: More Natgersnu on Tu Murray and I were alone, and illuminating words of Torah from us and things are said themselves. We went to Rabbi Yossi blood prestige returned, Onatasknu Murray difficult verse ... ... ... and I excused Murray added straw ... More ... and extended takes a lot, because there were things that shine on their own ... So much for business that day arrived, and thanks God we won that top all these things, influenced no reference at all, and sweet honey, royal gift to the divorce and swaying with her. - Venice SB divorce book, a page on EA - C IA, Page D EA

Things were in Ramak method, as he writes elsewhere: Eighth purple is what I tried I else about divorced, we were getting divorced field with divine Chmar"ar Shlomo Ben Alkvic Halevy Ner"v suddenly engage in Torah verses without reference, and things renewable things you can not believe this matter but who has seen or try it many times , and gifts I received divorced and came to parts spared the pamphlet I'll copy them on its own. - Book light guaranteed - part of the chapter on

In these cases the phenomenon is described next regular Megiddo, Megiddo As usual when used in automatic speech is used in this case thought automatically. In some cases in which tells of the tendons, it is unclear if the intention is automatic speech or thought automatically.

Various conventional books that distinction appears Maggid manifestations usually are close to its spiritual world was the Maggid of him, a fact which indicates the type detection Maggid The non-disclosure - is aware of the mind.

Conversation between Rabbi Yoel Kelupte Leaf Kelupte a vision that can not be claimed to rule that the words of Rabbi Yosef Caro, as the angel of the Maggid told him that Halakha likewise. A vision told him: "Maggid of the house of Joseph, is also the house of Joseph." That is, the weight of halakhic laws made in Magid Meisharim Rabbi Yosef Caro's owner Joseph, both as spoken by him, not from heaven.. [15]

See alsoEdit

he:מגיד (מאגיה)

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