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Main article: Judaism
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Judaism
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v · d · e

Judaism is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people,[1] based on the ancient Mosaic Law.

Originating in the Hebrew Bible (also known as the Tanakh) and explored in later texts such as the Talmud, it is considered by Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God developed with the Children of Israel. According to traditional Rabbinic Judaism, God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.[2]

This was historically challenged by the Karaites, a movement that flourished in the medieval period, retains several thousand followers today and maintains that only the Written Torah was revealed.[3] In modern times, liberal movements such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.[4]

Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3000 years. It is one of the oldest monotheistic religions,[5] and the oldest to survive into the present day.[6][7] The Hebrews / Israelites were already referred to as Jews in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title "Children of Israel."[8] Judaism's texts, traditions and values play a major role in later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith.[7][9] Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.[10]

Jews are an ethnoreligious group[11] that includes those born Jewish and converts to Judaism.

In 2007, the world Jewish population was estimated at 13 million, of whom about 40% reside in Israel[12] and 40% in the United States.[13] The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. A major source of difference between these groups is their approach to Jewish law.[14]

Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more "traditional" interpretation of Judaism's requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews.[15][16]

Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary.[17] Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and the many rabbis and scholars who interpret these texts.[18]

Part of a series on Philosophy
Jewish philosophy
Guide for the Perplexed by Maimonides
Jewish use of western
philosophical
method
Hellenistic

Philo

People:
Philo of Alexandria


Position in Western Philosophy:
Hasmoneans, Sadducees, Sabeans, Himyarites, Pharisees, Boethusians

Medieval

Ibn Gabirol Maimonides
Hakirah-Investigation
Part of Rabbinic canon

People:
Isaac Israeli ben Solomon, Saadia Gaon, David ben Merwan al-Mukkamas, Hasdai ibn Shaprut, Chananel ben Chushiel, Nissim Ben Jacob, Samuel ibn Naghrela, Isaac Alfasi, Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Abraham bar Ḥiyya, Joseph ibn Migash, Natan'el al-Fayyumi, Bahya ibn Paquda, Yehuda Halevi, Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi, Abraham ibn Daud, Maimonides, Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta, Shem-Tov ibn Falaquera, Gersonides, Moses of Narbonne, Isaac ben Sheshet Perfet, Hasdai ben Judah Crescas, Yosef Albo, Mansur ibn Sulayman al-Ghamari, Moses ben Isaac ha-Levi Minz, Elia del Medigo, Judah ben Eliezer ha-Levi Minz, Yitzhak ben Yehuda ben Shmuel Abravanel al-Daudi, Yehuda ben Yitzhak Abravanel al-Daudi, Francisco Sanches, Uriel da Costa, Moses Almosnino


Position in Rabbinic Judaism:
Maimonideans, anti-Maimonideans, Tosafists, Kabbalists, Talmudists, Karaism


Position in Western Philosophy:
Rationalism, Averroism, Neoplatonism, Avicennism,


Topics:
Mutazilites, Ismailism, Jewish Kalam, Jewish Ismailis, Jewish tribes of Arabia, Avempace, Brethren of Purity, Al-Ma'arri, Al-Kindi, Muhammad al-Fazari

Modern

Spinoza Mendelssohn Levinas

People:
Rashi, Baruch Spinoza, Salomon Maimon, Joseph Solomon Delmedigo, Elijah Ba'al Shem of Chelm, Eliezer ben Elijah Ashkenazi, Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi, Jacob Emden, Samuel Hirsch, Samson Raphael Hirsch, Jacob Abendana, Isaac Fernando Cardoso, David Nieto, Isaac Orobio de Castro, Moses Mendelssohn, Samuel David Luzzatto, Elijah Benamozegh, Moses Hess, Eliezer Berkovits, Eliyahu Eliezer Dessler, Daniel Rynhold, Monsieur Chouchani, Emmanuel Levinas, Martin Buber, Gershom Scholem, Joseph Soloveitchik, David Hartman, Thomas Nagel, Jose Faur, Jacques Derrida, Hilary Putnam, Leo Strauss


Position in Modern Judaism:
Orthodox Judaism, Sephardic Judaism, Chabad, Conservative Judaism, Reform Judaism, Jewish existentialism, Reconstructionist Judaism, Chassidic Theosophy, Holocaust theology, Jewish Renewal, Neo-Hasidism, Mussar movement, Rambamists


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Main article and categoriesEdit

Main article: Judaism


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History and branchesEdit

Main article: History and branches of Judaism

Biblical and holy books and peopleEdit

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Tribes of Israel
The Tribes
Related topics
v · d · e
Books of the Torah
  1. Genesis
  2. Exodus
  3. Leviticus
  4. Numbers
  5. Deuteronomy
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Judges in the Bible

In the Book of Joshua: Joshua
In the Book of Judges: OthnielEhudShamgarDeborahBarak† • GideonAbimelech† • TolaJairJephthahIbzanElonAbdonSamson
In First Samuel: EliSamuel

Not explicitly described as a judge


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Tabernacle and TemplesEdit

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Oral Law and TalmudEdit

AcharonimRishonimGeonimSavoraimAmoraimTannaim

Rabbinical Eras
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  Rabbis of the Mishnah : Chronology & Hierarchy v · d · e
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Teacher→Student
 
 
 
 
 
 
Father→Son
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hillel
 
Shammai
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gamaliel the Elder
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Johanan b. Zakai
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
R. Gamaliel
 
Jose the Galilean
 
Eliezer b. Hyrcanus
 
Joshua b. Hananiah
 
Eleazar b. Arach
 
Eleazar b. Azariah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elisha b. Abuyah
 
 
 
Akiva
 
Ishmael b. Elisha
 
Tarfon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nathan
 
Meir
 
Judah b. Ilai
 
Jose b. Halafta
 
Shimon b. Yohai
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Judah ha-Nasi
 
Hiyya
 
Oshiah
 
 
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RabbinicEdit

Rabbinic Literature

Talmudic literature

MishnahTosefta
Jerusalem TalmudBabylonian Talmud
Minor tractates


Halakhic Midrash

Mekhilta de-Rabbi Yishmael (Exodus)
Mekhilta de-Rabbi Shimon (Exodus)
Sifra (Leviticus)
Sifre (Numbers & Deuteronomy)
Sifre Zutta (Numbers)
Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim (Deuteronomy)
Baraita of Rabbi Ishmael


Aggadic Midrash

—— Tannaitic ——
Seder Olam Rabbah
Alphabet of Akiba ben Joseph
Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules
Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules
Baraita on Tabernacle Construction
—— 400–600 ——
Genesis RabbahEichah Rabbah
Pesikta de-Rav Kahana
Esther RabbahMidrash Iyyov
Leviticus RabbahSeder Olam Zutta
Midrash TanhumaMegillat Antiochus
—— 650–900 ——
Avot of Rabbi Natan
Pirkei de-Rabbi Eliezer
Tanna Devei Eliyahu
Alphabet of Ben-Sira
Kohelet RabbahCanticles Rabbah
Devarim Rabbah • Devarim Zutta
Pesikta RabbatiMidrash Shmuel
Midrash ProverbsRuth Rabbah
Baraita of SamuelTargum sheni
—— 900–1000 ——
Ruth Zuta • Eichah Zuta
Midrash TehillimMidrash Hashkem
Exodus RabbahCanticles Zutta
—— 1000–1200 ——
Midrash TadsheSefer haYashar
—— Later ——
Yalkut ShimoniYalkut Makiri
Midrash JonahEin Yaakov
Midrash HaGadolNumbers Rabbah
Smaller midrashim


Rabbinic Targum

—— Torah ——
Targum Onkelos
Targum Pseudo-Jonathan
Fragment Targum • Targum Neofiti

—— Nevi'im ——
Targum Jonathan

—— Ketuvim ——
Targum Tehillim • Targum Mishlei
Targum Iyyov
Targum to the Five Megillot
Targum Sheni to Esther
Targum to Chronicles

v · d · e

Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. But the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (ספרות חז"ל; "Literature [of our] sages [of] blessed memory," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts.

Mishnaic literatureEdit

The Mishnah and the Tosefta (compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's Oral Law, as well as ethical teachings. Following these came the two Talmuds:

The MidrashEdit

Midrash (pl. Midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of reading details into, or out of, a Biblical text. The term midrash also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the Bible or Mishnah. There are a large number of "classical" Midrashic works spanning a period from Mishnaic to Geonic times, often showing evidence of having been worked and reworked from earlier materials, and frequently coming to us in multiple variants.

Later works by categoryEdit

Major codes of Jewish lawEdit

Main article: Halakha

Jewish thought, mysticism and ethicsEdit

LiturgyEdit

Later rabbinic works by historical periodEdit

Works of the GeonimEdit

The Geonim are the rabbis of Sura and Pumbeditha, in Babylon (650 - 1250) :

Works of the Rishonim (the "early" rabbinical commentators)Edit

Main article: Rishonim

The Rishonim are the rabbis of the early medieval period (1000 - 1550), such as the following main examples:

Works of the Acharonim (the "later" rabbinical commentators)Edit

Main article: Acharonim

The Acharonim are the rabbis from 1550 to the present day, such as the following main examples:

MeforshimEdit

Meforshim is a Hebrew word meaning "(classical rabbinical) commentators" (or roughly meaning "exegetes"), and is used as a substitute for the correct word perushim which means "commentaries". In Judaism this term refers to commentaries on the Torah (five books of Moses), Tanakh, the Mishnah, the Talmud, responsa, even the siddur (Jewish prayerbook), and more.

Classic Torah and Talmud commentariesEdit

Classic Torah and/or Talmud commentaries have been written by the following individuals:

Classical Talmudic commentaries were written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafot were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciples and descendants of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.

Holy days and observancesEdit

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Philosophy and jurisprudenceEdit

LawEdit

Main article: Halakha
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Major legal codes and worksEdit

Examples of legal principlesEdit

Examples of Biblical punishmentsEdit

Languages used in JudaismEdit

Main article: Jewish languages
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LifeEdit

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Dietary laws and customsEdit

Mysticism and the esotericEdit

Main article: Kabbalah
The Sefirot in Jewish Kabbalah

Error: image is invalid or non-existent

View the image description page for this diagram Category:Sephiroth v · d · e
Names of God in Judaism:

Religious articles and prayersEdit

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140px Citron varieties



Acidic-pulp varieties:

Non-acidic varieties:

Pulpless varieties:

Related Articles:
CitrusSuccadeHybridGraftingChimeraEtrogSukkothFour Species
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Repentance and returnEdit

Main article: Repentance in Judaism
This article is part of the
Jewish outreach series
Denominations

General

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Rejection of Judaism by Jews:
Return to Judaism:
Conversion to Judaism:

Interactions with other religions and culturesEdit

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Divisions in Judaism
Judaism · (portal)
Fundamentals · Definition
Interrelations · Schisms
Jews and Judaism
Historic groups
Sadducees · Pharisees
Essenes · Sicarii
Great Houses
Shammai · Hillel
Modern groups
Rabbanism · Karaism
Samaritanism · Beta Israel
Rabbinic movements
Orthodox · Traditional
Reform · Conservative
Reconstructionist
Orthodoxy
Modox · Mitnagdim
Ḥasidism · Ḥaredim
Ḥasidism
Dynasties (list)
Gur · Satmar · Chabad
Breslov · Bobov · Belz
Alexander · Amshinov
Berditchev · Biala · Boyan
Boston · Burshtin · Kalov
Chernobyl · Chortkov
Dushinsky · Karlin · Sanz
Klausenberg · Munkatch
Modzitz · Lelov · Puppa
Pshevorsk · Nadvorna
Osrov-Henzin · Seret
Rachmastrivka · Ruzhin
Sasregen · Sassov
Shotz · Skulen · Slonim
Skver · Spinka · Sulitz
Toldos Aharon · Tosh
Vizhnitz · Zhvill · Kotzk
Zidichov
Alternative Judaism
Humanist · Pagan · Jubu
Renewal · Messianics
Donmeh · Crypto-Judaism
Secular · Neturei Karta
Noaḥidism · Muslim Jews
Kabbalism · 10 Tribes
Anglo-Israelism
v · d · e
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Religious movements and organizationsEdit

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Notable religious schools and teachersEdit

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v · d · e
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Yosef Dov (Reb Berel) Soloveitchik]]
 
 
Rabbi Avrohom Yehoshua Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Meshulam Dovid (Reb Dovid) Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Yosef Dov (HaLevi) Soloveitchik
author of Beis HaLevi
 
Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik
"Reb Chaim Brisker"
 
 
Rabbi Yitzchak Zev (Reb Velvel) Soloveitchik
"The GRIZ"
The Brisker Rov
 
 
Lifsha Soloveitchik Feinstein
 
 
 
Dr. Tovah Soloveitchik Lichtenstein
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lifsha Shapiro
daughter of Rav Refael Shapiro
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Refoel Soloveitchik
 
 
 
Rabbi Dr. Aharon Lichtenstein
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Meir Soloveitchik
 
 
 
Dr. Atarah Soloveitchik Twersky
 
 
 
Rabbi Mosheh Twersky
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Dr. Joseph B. (Yosef Dov) Soloveitchik
"The Rav"
 
 
 
Rabbi Dr. Isadore Twersky
 
 
 
Rabbi Mayer Twersky
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Moshe Soloveichik
 
 
Rabbi Ahron Soloveichik
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Dr. Haym Soloveitchik
 
 
 
Rabbi Moshe Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Peshka Feinstein Soloveichik
 
 
Rabbi Dr. Shmuel Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Eliyahu Soloveichik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shulamit Soloveitchik Meiselman
 
 
Rabbi Moshe Meiselman
 
 
 
Rabbi Yosef Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anne Soloveitchik Gerber
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Chaim Soloveichik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Yosef Dov Soloveitchik
 
 
 
Rabbi Shmuel Chaim Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Yitzchok Soloveitchik
 
 
 
Rabbi Yisroel Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Yisroel Gershon Soloveitchik
 
 
Rabbi Moshe Soloveitchik
 
 
 
Rabbi Boruch Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rabbi Avraham Yeshaya Soloveitchik
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Daughter Soloveitchik, Wife of Rabbi Shlomo Zev Karlibach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


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ReferencesEdit

  1. Jacobs, Louis (2007). "Judaism". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 11 (2d ed.). Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. p. 511. ISBN 9780-02-865928-2. "Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews.". 
  2. "What is the oral Torah?". Torah.org. http://www.torah.org/learning/basics/primer/torah/oraltorah.html. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  3. "Karaite Jewish University". Kjuonline.com. http://www.kjuonline.com/To_Our_Fellow_Jews.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  4. "Society for Humanistic Judaism". Shj.org. http://www.shj.org/. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  5. "Religion & Ethics - Judaism". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/judaism/. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  6. JudaismPDF (52.1 KB)
  7. 7.0 7.1 "The 3 Monotheistic Religions - Essays - Noel12". Oppapers.com. 2008-05-26. http://www.oppapers.com/essays/3-Monotheistic-Religions/151138. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  8. Settings of silver: an introduction to Judaism p. 59 by Stephen M. Wylen, Paulist Press, 2000 [1]
  9. "Judaism page, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance". Religioustolerance.org. http://www.religioustolerance.org/judaism.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  10. Jewish Contributions to Civilization: An Estimate (book)
  11. See, for example, Deborah Dash Moore, American Jewish Identity Politics, University of Michigan Press, 2008, p. 303; Ewa Morawska, Insecure Prosperity: Small-Town Jews in Industrial America, 1890-1940, Princeton University Press, 1999. p. 217; Peter Y. Medding, Values, interests and identity: Jews and politics in a changing world, Volume 11 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 64; Ezra Mendelsohn, People of the city: Jews and the urban challenge, Volume 15 of Studies in contemporary Jewry, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 55; Louis Sandy Maisel, Ira N. Forman, Donald Altschiller, Charles Walker Bassett, Jews in American politics: essays, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, p. 158; Seymour Martin Lipset, American Exceptionalism: A Double-Edged Sword, W. W. Norton & Company, 1997, p. 169.
  12. Pfeffer, Anshel (2008-04-02). "Percent of world Jewry living in Israel climbed to 41% in 2007 - Haaretz - Israel News". Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/942009.html. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  13. "Jewish Population By Region". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/jewpop.html. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  14. "Jewish Denominations". ReligionFacts. http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/denominations.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  15. "Reform Judaism". ReligionFacts. http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/denominations/reform.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  16. "What is Reform Judaism?". Reformjudaism.org. http://reformjudaism.org/whatisrj.shtml. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  17. Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Bet Din". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/63134/bet-din. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  18. "Judaism 101: Rabbis, Priests and Other Religious Functionaries". Jewfaq.org. http://www.jewfaq.org/rabbi.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 


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