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Theosophy (Greek: θεοσοφία theosophia "knowledge of things divine", literally "god-wisdom"), designates several bodies of ideas since Late Antiquity. The Greek term is attested on magical papyri (PMag. Leid. W.6.17: ἡ ἄγαν θεοσοφία).
The term also appears in Neoplatonism. Porphyry De Abstinentia (4.9) mentions "Greek and Chaldean theosophy", Ἑλληνική, Χαλδαϊκὴ θεοσοφία. The adjective θεόσοφος "wise in divine things" is applied by Iamblichus (De mysteriis 7.1) to the Γυμνοσοφισταί, i.e. the Indian yogis or sadhus.
The name theosophy was applied specifically to Jacob Böhme, who showed at least stylistic influence by the Renaissance "theosophists": Böhme's writing shows the influence of neoplatonist and alchemical writers such as Paracelsus, while remaining firmly within a Christian tradition. Behmenism was also an important source of German Romantic philosophy, influencing Schelling in particular, as well as Enlightenment theologian Emanuel Swedenborg.
In Richard Bucke's 1901 treatise Cosmic Consciousness, special attention was given to the profundity of Böhme's spiritual enlightenment, which seemed to reveal to Böhme an ultimate nondifference, or nonduality, between human beings and God.
- Main article: Theosophy
Finally, the word was revived in the nineteenth century by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky to designate her religious philosophy which holds that an original religion was revealed to mankind in the far distant past and that each modern religion is an imperfect remembrance, cloaked in symbolism, of that original divine knowledge. Together with Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge, and others, Blavatsky founded the Theosophical Society in 1875.lt:Teosofija (filosofinė doktrina) ru:Теософия